Qiqihar is the second largest city in Heilongjiang and city under direct jurisdiction of Heilongjiang. It is the center of politics, economy, science & technology, culture, education, trade and commerce and an important transportation hub in the west of Heilongjiang Province. It has 7 districts, 1 city and 8 counties under its jurisdiction, with a population of 5.611 million (an urban population of 1.439 million). Qiqihar is one of the thirteen large cities approved by the State Council.
Qiqihar, located on the Nengjiang Plain in the northwest of Heilongjiang Province, bordering Suihua of Heilongjiang on the east, Baicheng of Jilin on the south, Hulunbeier League of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region on the west and Heihe of Heilongjiang on the North. It is 359 km from the capital city of Harbin, 328 km from Suihua, 282km from Baicheng, 524 km from Hailar and 483 km from Heihe. Its geological structure belongs where the second subsidence zone and the third uplift zone of the neocathaysian structural system meets, with the Nengjiang Large Fracture running through the whole plain. Qiqihar has a terrain sliding from north to south, with the north and the east being the south piedmont of Lesser Khingan Mountains, the middle and the south being the Nengjiang Alluvial Plain.
Qiqihar is an ancient city with a long history of over 300 years. In 1674, the government of the Qing Dynasty ordered Jilin Navy to station in Qiqihar. In 1683, Qiqihar was a camp of navy and in 1684, Qiqihar established a firearms camp. In 1691, Qiqihar city was established. In 1698 and 1699, the deputy lieutenant general and general of Heilongjiang relocated from Moergen to Qiqihar. In 1895, Qiqihar established Heishui Hall. In 1907, Qiqihar became the capital city of Heilongjiang. In 1936, Qiqihar established a city system. After the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, Qiqihar served as the capital city of Nengjiang Province, Heineng Province and Heilongjiang Province. In 1954, Heilongjiang Province merged with Songjiang Province, with Harbin determined as the capital city, and Qiqihar became a city under the direct jurisdiction of Heilongjiang Province.
Qiqihar is an emerging city with huge development potential, with a solid industrial foundation. It is one of the old industrial bases established earliest in China, with a complete industry system dominated by heavy machinery and metallurgical industry, supplemented by various industries such as chemical industry, light industry, textile, building materials, food, electronics and medicine. It boasts CFHI and Beiman Special Steel Group Co., Ltd., proclaimed a “National Treasure” and “Palm Pearl” by form premier Zhou Enlai, No.1 Machine Tool Factory and No.2 Machine Tool Factory, listed as the best machine manufacturing enterprises in China’s machine industry, Qiqihar Railway Rolling Stock Co., Ltd., China’s largest railway wagon manufacturing enterprise, and large chemical industrial enterprises as Heilongjiang Chemical Factory, Qiqihar General Chemical Factory and three large military enterprises -- “Heping”, “Jianhua” and “Hua’an”, which have made outstanding contributions to China’s defense development.
Qiqihar is a transport and communication hub covering Heilongjiang, Jilin and Inner Mongolia, with railway connections to all over the country. Flights provide access to medium and large cities at home and abroad like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Qingdao, Dalian, and Seoul, South Korea, with annual passenger throughout of over 20 million person-times. Waterways provide access to Heihe to the north, Harbin and Jiamusi to the east. Telephone communication has entered the international direct dial network.
Qiqihar has unique tourism landscape, the Zhalong Natural Reserve is China’s largest waterfowl and bird reserve that is well-known both at home and abroad, inhabited by rare red-crowned cranes, which is why Qiqihar is honored as the “Crane City”.
Qiqihar, located on the Songnen Plain in the middle west of Heilongjiang Province, 359 km from Harbin, adjacent to the petroleum city Daqing on the south and bordering Heihe on the north, Qiqihar is called Bukui (meaning “Auspicious” in the Daur language) in the past.
“Qiqihar”, meaning “border area” or “natural pasture” in Daur. It served as Heilongjiang General’s Mansion in the Qing Dynasty and the capital city of Heilongjiang in the early years of new China. The whole city has seven districts and nine counties and brings 35 ethnic groups together, including the Han, Mongolian, Korean, Manchu, Hui, Daur, Ewenki, Oroqen, Khalkhas, Xibe, etc..
Qiqihar has convenient traffic conditions and complete communication facilities and its tourism industry is developing rapidly, making it a booming tourist city. Qiqihar has abundant tourism resources, a long cultural history, unique natural scenery, elegant ancient culture and old historical sites, especially the Zhalong Natural Reserve -home to, red-crowned cranes, domestically and overseas well-know rare birds, Bright Moon Island, surrounded by water on four sides, with unique scenery, naturally interesting, Longsha Park, with impressive lake and mountain views, unique pavilions, and splendid scenery, Ang’angxi New Stone Age cultural site, and such cultural relics and Temple of Mahayana, Mosque, Guandi Temple, Obeslik Hill and Pagoda Town, which attract a large number of tourists from home and abroad every year. The halong National Nature Reserve, as an internationally well-known reserve for waterfowls and birds, is inhabited by rare red-crowned cranes, because of which Qiqihar is referred to as the Home of Red-Crowned Cranes. Gorgeous ice carvings and snow scenery in winter are more splendid, and highly praised by tourist from home and abroad.
Area: 42,469 square meters
Population: 5.611 million (an urban population of 1.439 million)
Land Resources: Qiqihar has an arable land area of 35,010,000 mu (15mu=1ha), grassland area of 11,450,000 mu, woodland area of 5,600,000 mu and waters and reed pond area of 2,750,000 mu and barren land area of 1,950,000 mu.
The soil of Qiqihar mainly consists of dark brown soil (containing growing grass dark brown soil, meadow dark brown soil), black soil, chernozem (including leached chernozem, meadow chernozem, carbonate meadow chernozem, chernozem and carbonate chernozem), meadow soil (including meadow soil, carbonate meadow soil, gley meadow soil, salinized meadow soil, layered meadow soil), marsh soil (including meadow marsh soil, humus marsh soil, salinized marsh soil), meadow alkali soil and sandy soil (including meadow chernozem sandy soil, chernozem sandy soil). Most soil of Qiqihar has the advantages of high heat, good permeability, light texture and flat terrain.
Forest resources: in 1998, Qiqihar had forestry land area of 685,000 hectares, forest land area of 415,000 hectares, with timber forest, shelter forest, economic forest and firewood forest occupying 411,000 hectares in all, forest stock volume being 16,44 million cubic meters, with a forest coverage rate of 11.7%.
Water Resources: Qiqihar mainly has more than 170 rivers such as the Nengjiang River, Nuomin River, Yalu River, Handahan River, Wuyur River and Yinhe River and around 800 lakes. Qiqihar has a large inbound water amount and 15 ground water aquifers. In the phreatic water distribution area, the water-bearing layer has strong regulation and storage capacity, with abundant makeup water amount. Shallow groundwater reserves facilitate development and utilization. Qiqihar has good natural river quality and generally, underground water can meet drinking water requirements.
Mineral Resources: Qiqihar has abundant underground resources, showing a broad development prospect. The found minerals fall into 47 varieties of 5 categories, including 19 varieties of 4 categories of non-metallic mines (stone, sand, soil, ash), with total reserves of 13.9 billion cubic meters. The minerals with large reserves include quartz sand, limestone, marble, volcanic rock, boil stone, medical stone, basalt rock, granite rock, diatomite and swelling soil. There are also such resources with impressive reserves near the urban area as oil and natural gas.